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Continue shopping. Item s unavailable for purchase. Please review your cart. At the institutional level, curricular strategies against math anxiety may be implemented. Various colleges already offer courses against math anxiety wherein students learn techniques to overcome barriers in learning math and handle their fear of the subject. Even if students do not use a retest, the opportunity itself eases strain. Similar advice involves the use of hands-on devices and manipulatives in learning.
In exams, teachers may introduce anxiety-reducing measures such as using humorous examination tasks, or dividing the learning contents into several smaller examinations instead of one extensive examination.
Learners can protect themselves against the development of math anxiety by different means. Learners should focus more on past successes than failures, and believe in their abilities instead of doubting them. However, our research review on interventions to math anxiety showed a limited range of studies. Studies on the topic need a more systematic approach. Presently, studies focus on different outcomes of math anxiety, on different age groups; they mostly investigate various smaller interventions over a short time period.
For the advancement of interventions on math anxiety, a clinimetric framework with a joint understanding and description of the phenomenon itself, of rating scales, and indexes for measurement of math anxiety as well as for success of interventions would be helpful. In both research and practice, it has been acknowledged on an international level that math anxiety poses a severe problem over entire life spans.
The effects of math anxiety on performance have been widely investigated, and its negative impact has been acknowledged. Issues, however, still remain with regard to math anxiety that need further investigation. One concerns the temporal development of math anxiety and methodologically the need for long-term investigations.
There is still a lack of research on the question of how math anxiety develops in childhood and how it becomes established over time. More knowledge on this question could help prevent math anxiety at an early age. Another issue concerns the relationship between math anxiety and moderating variables. As could be shown for intrinsic motivation, moderating variables may change the relationship between math anxiety and performance; when learners experienced intrinsic motivation, moderate levels of math anxiety had a positive influence on performance.
Here, methodological and statistical approaches are needed that take into consideration the reciprocal interaction of an ensemble of variables. Lastly, as it was pointed out in the last section, research on math anxiety would very much profit from a more standardized clinimetric approach and joint agreements of researchers and practitioners on how to define and measure math anxiety. As shown, there are numerous possibilities for the support of math-anxious individuals and reducing math anxiety. More knowledge on the development of math anxiety and its interaction with other variables will be important in supporting math-anxious individuals.
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Abstract Anxiety disorders are some of the most widespread mental health issues worldwide. Keywords: math anxiety, performance in mathematics, diagnosis of math anxiety, measures against math anxiety. Aims This overview on math anxiety pursues the following aims: To describe the phenomenon of math anxiety, including information on its prevalence and on how it differs from other forms of anxiety.
To introduce instruments for the measurement of math anxiety in different age groups. To describe possible means to prevent or reduce math anxiety. Introduction Anxiety disorders are some of the most widespread mental health-care problems worldwide. It distinguishes between different types of variables: Educational outcome variables such as performance, learning behaviors, or choices are influenced by math anxiety. Outcomes of math anxiety According to Figure 1 , math anxiety influences various outcome variables, the most important of which are introduced here.
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Math anxiety and performance Studies on performance mainly focus on students in secondary education and university students. Math anxiety, performance, and effects on working memory According to the Attentional Control Theory, efficient cognitive processing depends on two attentional systems: a top—down, goal-driven system that is influenced by current goals and expectations, and a stimulus-driven system that is influenced by the salient stimuli of the environment.
Math anxiety and learning behaviors, especially procrastination Math anxiety not only has direct effects on task performance, but influences long-term learning as well. Math anxiety and academic and vocational choices Math-anxious students take fewer math courses and avoid elective math coursework as early as secondary school. Antecedents of math anxiety Antecedents of math anxiety can be divided into personal and environmental characteristics.
Significant people like teachers or parents Teachers, parents, and other important adults serve as role models and influence children with their own attitudes toward math. Culture and educational systems According to the PISA studies, the level of math anxiety on the one side and the strength of the correlation between math-anxiety, self-assessments in math abilities, and performance on the other side differ across countries. Gender and stereotypes Studies on math anxiety in secondary and tertiary education nearly always find higher levels of math anxiety in female, than in male, students.
Genetic dispositions Studies with monozygotic and dizygotic twins suggest that math anxiety has a genetic component, too. General anxiety proneness General anxiety proneness can be described as the habitual tendency to perceive stressful situations as threatening. Variables in reciprocal interaction with math anxiety Figure 1 suggests that math anxiety reciprocally interacts with other variables in math-related situations. Self-efficacy and self-concept With regard to math, self-efficacy describes the belief of a person that, through their own action and effort, one can successfully perform in math.
Prior knowledge Lack of knowledge or the inability to understand mathematical concepts strongly contribute to math anxiety.
Motivation Motivation can be described as an individual preference and a positively experienced, situation-specific state when working on a task. Conclusion In both research and practice, it has been acknowledged on an international level that math anxiety poses a severe problem over entire life spans. Footnotes Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work. References 1. Psychometric evaluation and experimental validation of the Statistics Anxiety Rating Scale. J Pers Assess. Prevalence and incidence studies of anxiety disorders: a systematic review of the literature.
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How is anxiety related to math performance in young students? A longitudinal study of Grade 2 to Grade 3 children. Cogn Emot. Math anxiety and its relationship with basic arithmetic skills among primary school children. Br J Educ Psychol. Anxiety and performance: the processing efficiency theory. Derakshan N, Eysenck MW. Anxiety, processing efficiency, and cognitive performance. Eur Psychol. The relationships among working memory, math anxiety, and performance. J Exp Psychol Gen. Mathematics anxiety and working memory. J Anxiety Disord. Examining the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics performance: an instructional hierarchy perspective.
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Correlates of academic procrastination and mathematics achievement of university undergraduate students. Impact of academic procrastination and study habit on expressed mathematics anxiety of junior secondary school students in Esan South-East Edo State Nigeria. Br J Psychol Res. The math anxiety-performance link: a global phenomenon.
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Psychol Rep. State and trait anxiety revisited. Self-concept in learning: reciprocal effects model between academic self-concept and academic achievement. Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic.